Saturday, January 26, 2008

How Big is a Farm? Who is a Farmer?

Well, the game of post-riposte is winding down over at TOD, 400+ comments, etc... on my response to Stuart Staniford (his original essay linked at the top of mine or in my last post) http://www.theoildrum.com/node/3541#more, complete with Staniford's response to me, and back again.... Fun and all, but back to work. Although if you'd like a nice, short post on the subject, check out Dmitry Orlov's comments on the subject:http://cluborlov.blogspot.com/2008/01/on-fallacy-of-reversibility.html

One of the problems in this discussion is the question of "how big is a farm?" That is, when we talk about "farmers" who are we actually talking about? What's "agriculture", and what's "gardening?" Where does "homesteading" "smallholding" "horticulture" and "subsistence farming" fall in the mess? BoysMom was helpful enough to ask about that in comments, and I thought it had been long enough since I covered this topic that it would be worth discussing it here. Is part of the problem of discussing "relocalization" that our definitions of "farmer" vary so widely that we're talking past each other?


Personally, I have a strong opinion on this subject (gee, could you have guessed?) I think (and yes, all the real farmers yell at me, and I don't entirely blame them), that "farmer" should be the umbrella term for remunerative food production. That is, I think you are a farmer if you grow food for sale, for barter or as a large portion of your own personal economy - that is, I think we call them "subsistence farmers" for a reason. If farming either provides a significant part of your income.

My criteria for this is simple - we don't live in isolation - the word "farmer" should mean something across national and cultural boundaries. That is, a "farmer" in India, and a "farmer" in Canada should be able to recognize one another as fellow creatures with a shared profession, and art. As we are speaking now, the word "farmer" as it is used in the rich world erases the vast majority of world farmers out of the language, and that shouldn't be acceptable to us. As important, it gives us a mistaken sense of what agriculture actually is- even what agriculture was. In the 1940s, a large amount of victory garden literature spoke of "garden farms" - that is, home gardens that operated, like farms, to both supply the subsistence needs of the family and to serve the large public interest by freeing up food to be sent overseas.

That is, it isn't that long even in North American history that a "farmer" has been a guy with a thousand acres. And in the rest of the world, it may never work that way:

http://www.ifpri.org/events/seminars/2005/smallfarms/sfproc/Appendix_InformationBrief.pdf.


As you'll note from the first paragraph, even the experts have a hard time with the naming problem - and so they just call them "farmers." (My computer does not permit me to use PDFs, and for some reason I can't copy text from the html format, so I'm afraid you'll just have to look back). That is, the World Bank and the UN FAO have essentially deemed as farmers anyone who calls themselves a farmer, sells food, or subsists primarily on their own food. The distinction they make is "small farmer" vs. "large farmer" - but all of them are farmers.

Right now, the majority of the world's farms are small farms. The average farm size in Africa and Asia is 1.6 hectares (for those who are accustomed to acreage measurements, a hectare is about 2.5 acres - thus, the average farm size in Africa and Asia would be a bit under 4 acres). This means that there are a whole lot of farms much smaller than 4 acres. 95% of all farms in many parts of the former Soviet Unions are under 1 hectare, and that they provide the majority of all agricultural production, a total of 52% of all food eaten in the region.

The US, as of the last Ag Census, contained 66,ooo+ small farms under 2 hectares. Which just goes to support Kiashu's well taken point here:
http://greenwithagun.blogspot.com/2008/01/relocalisation.html, that about half of the world's food already comes from small farms. Add to that Helena Norberg-Hodge's observation that *2 Billion* people live almost entirely on subsistence agriculture that is low input and largely organic (because they can't afford not to be), and we can see that agricultural norms are simply different than what we Americans and Canadians think of.

The claim that large farmer are essential to produce grain turns out also to be false - in India, 40% of all food grains are produced by small farmers in parcels under 2 hectares, and not totally dissimilar data is found in other developing nations. It may well be more efficient to produce grain in more centralized areas, by some definitions (the distinction here between efficiency of land and efficiency of labor would apply in some cases), but for those who immediately leap to the conclusion that we'd never have any grain if we didn't have big farms, this is a useful observation.

But aren't all small farmers poor? In a 2004 analysis for the _Handbook of Agricultural Economics_, Eastwood, Lipton and Newell observe that in developing nations, small farmers tend to be disproportionately taxed, while in developed nations, they tend not to receive the benefits of agricultural subsidies. That is, small farmers tend to get the worst of both worlds, with both poor and rich nations tending to disadvantage them economically. That's not to say that the economic disadvantages of agriculture as we do it now (which apply to most North American and European farmers except during ethanol booms) don't make farming a difficult choice - but it does suggest that just as agricultural policy has driven farmers in the US out of business for decades, agricultural policy is also working in many cases to impoverish farmers in the poor world. FAO agriculture economists Binswanger, Deinenger and Feder, for example, conclude that generally speaking larger farms in the poor world are dramatically less efficient than smaller, family farms, but that policies favor them so strongly as to elide much of this difference. That is, in both the rich and the poor world, we work very hard to keep our small farmers poor. It is interesting to try and imagine what a systematic set of agricultural policies that supported small scale, diversified agriculture would do to the present equation of poverty and size.

Interestingly, it seems that in both south Asia and the former Soviet Union, the trend that economic development generally creates towards larger farms seems not to be the case - that is, the Handbook of Agricultural Economics cited above notes that as of 2004, neither Russia nor south Asia seems to be following the pattern of getting bigger as they get richer. In Russia, the authors speculate, it may be because of the powerful impact of the 1990 collapse of the Soviet Union, where consumers now associate small farms with food security. In Asia and parts of Latin America (Brazil and Argentina have steadily increased farm size, while smaller nations have declined, implying that averages are not as much to the point here as the articulation of two seperate trends), where farm sizes actually seem to have declined in the later part of the 20th century.

So what should we take from all this data? First, that small farms are normal, and that the majority of the world's farmers are small farmers of less than 5 acres. That is, it is hard to claim that someone farming a comparatively small piece of land is not a farmer, if they constitute a majority - in fact, perhaps it would be more accurate to call many large scale farmers (as some prefer) "agribusinessmen" and leave the term farmer to the majority. In addition, in many, many nations there are substantial numbers of farms that are pretty much the same size as a suburban lot. The people who farm them are farmers. The average Bangladeshi farms half a hectare. In Barbados, the average piece of land is 1.6 hectares. In China, 0.67 hectares, in India 1.34 hectares. Lebanon 1.2, Japan, 1.2, Egypt 0.95. And of course, averages mean that many, many of these farms are quite a bit tinier.

So it must be that farming isn't about land size. Even in the US this can be true - in her glorious book _The Earth Knows My Name:Food, Culture and Sustainability in the Gardens of Ethnic America_, Patricia Klindienst notes that there is no clear boundary between those who call themselves "farmers" and those who call themselves "gardeners" - some of the gardens are bigger than the farms, in fact. That is, even in America, there are thousands of small farms, being worked by thousands of small farmers, and size doesn't seem to be the defining factor.

So perhaps what matters is what you are doing on your land, not how big it is. How should we narrow this one down - the tax purposes model is, I think, insufficient to offer us an overarching definition that crosses borders from the rich world to the poor (I once read that in at least one US state, one way to be a farm for tax purposes is to own a cow - period, and in that state (which one I've forgotten) there are a number of people keeping cows in their garages, buying their hay, and accepting a tax write off, but this may be purely anecdotal).

One obvious way to distinguish between farmers and gardeners would be by economic remuneration - that is, if you sell farm products, you are a farmer. But this model effectively removes from the language the millions, perhaps even billions of subsistence farmers who sell little or nothing off their land. These people live their lives as farmers, with all the benefits and disadvantages that applies - we cannot erase them from the language. In most cases, they are taxed in their countries as farmers.

Such subsistence farmers exist in the rich world as well - there are not a huge number of subsistence farmers these days, but they do exist, and I know a few. They grow their own food, cut their own wood, hunt, and work off the farm or sell enough to pay the land taxes. One of my neighbors, Paul, is a subsistence farmer, living from his half acre garden, two deer a year, a couple of wild turkeys and enough work as a substitute teacher to pay for taxes and beer. He jokes that he works as a teacher 5 days a month, and grows and hunts food the other 25, but when the government asks him what he does, he's a teacher!

We cannot say that having a non-agricultural job is a criteria for ceasing to call someone a farmer either - according to the USDA, 71% of all US farmers of all sizes have either an off season, or off farm income, or a household member who provides an off farm income. In _Ending Hunger In Our Lifetime_ ed Runge, Senauer et al notes that this is true of many poor world farmers as well - not quite 80% also do seasonal or off farm work, or have a household member who does so. The numbers are oddly similar. In fact, Peter Rosset in _Food is Different_ tracks the ways that farmers subsidize consumers and their own agricultural practices, and notes that in general, farmers subsidize cheap food more than governments do - that is, because farming is not merely a job but a culture and a way of life, farmers will do almost anything to keep their land - including sending family members off the land to allow those who farm to growing corn or rice or beans at low prices. See:http://casaubonsbook.blogspot.com/2007/02/just-keep-farming-until-money-runs-out.html

A farmer is not someone who never does any work off the farm, then. She is not someone (btw, "he" is a "she" - the majority of the world's farmers are women - and many poor nations have long traditions of agriculture and land ownership in women's hands) who owns a lot of land, or necessarily sells much or any food in the market place.

So what does distinguish farmers from gardeners? Not much. Perhaps we should think about the distinction linguistically. "Gardener" derives from a the french, and means "an enclosed space" - that is, its linguistic focus is on limitations. A "garden" linguistically speaking, is seperated from the space around it by cultivation.

"Farm" and "farmer" on the other hand come from the same root as "to form" and imply creation. The oldest English forms of the word, going back to Beowulf and the Domesday book, also meant "a banquet or feast" - that is, farms and farmers are linguistically tied to bountifulness, to eating, to abudance and plenty, and also to the power of creation - by implication to the power that created "terra firma" - that is, the linguistic implication is that farming is acting in G-d's image, creating plenty.

My own take, is that as valuable as the word "gardener" is, the kind of agriculture we're trying to create is more appropriately described as "farming" than as gardening - that is, a truly sustainable agriculture happens not in boundaries, but across them. Is a permaculture garden a bounded space, or do its lines blur into the trees and wildlands around it? Is an agriculture designed to create mixed use pasture for wildlife and farmed animals about its fences, or about what can pass through them? Is a family living in part on what they grow and what they forage and harvest from untended spaces in their town or city tending a garden, or farming their community? It isn't that gardening isn't a good word, it is that I think farming is a better one.

All of the other terms offer some kind of subset of the above. It isn't that I have any objection to someone calling themselves a smallholder, a gardener, a homesteader or an edible landscaper, it is merely that there exists an umbrella term that serves, not just because it is accurate, but because it describes so well what we must become.

Sharon

112 comments:

Apple Jack Creek said...

I realized a few years back, that what I really want to be when I grow up is a farmer.

I'm an IT professional. This is a bit of a stretch. :) However, I moved to 6.3 acres in the country, and now it is possible - by your definition, if nobody else's.

This is what I needed to see today - that it IS possible for someone like me, just a city girl with the ability to read books and apply what she has learned, to become a REAL farmer. A small farmer, to be sure, but still, a farmer.

My sheep, my chickens, and my garden-to-be. Yep, we can do this.

Anonymous said...

I think you are onto something, Sharon, in looking at who is a "farmer."

The conflicts that swirl around land, taxes and farmers/peasants are the stuff of history. This all gets very political very fast.

Looking through history, the lot of the small farmer or peasant has not been a happy one. Not just in the past either - you point out how "in both the rich and the poor world, we work very hard to keep our small farmers poor."

In an intriguing article, written before her death, homesteading author Carla Emery wrote about her vision of how the US successfully responds to peak oil by re-distributing the farmland.

PS Glad to hear that you'll continue blogging. I did appreciate the humor in the name "Casaubon's Book," but I can see that it may be time to choose another. Best of luck.

Bart
Energy Bulletin

helwen said...

Hi Apple Jack Creek,

Best wishes on becoming a farmer! I started off small scale, growing stuff in our old house's yards. My husband grew up on a farm, but has only certain kinds of farming knowledge, focused on particular types of crops. So we both will be learning and experimenting this year with some new crops, to see what direction we want to go with expanding our farming.

Meantime, I highly recommend two books that have helped me a lot. One is Ruth Stout's _No Work Garden_ book. It'll probably be out of print, but you can likely get a copy through Bookfinder.com. I gave a copy to my father-in-law some years ago and he tried it out on the truck garden and hasn't gone back. It advocates mulching (for nutrition, keeping down weeds, and retaining moisture in the soil). We use chaff off the barn floors (hay is one of our crops); if you have any hay farms or stables nearby you might be able to offer to clear some of their floors and get it for free too.

The other book is _Gardening When It Counts: Growing Food in Hard Times_, by Steve Solomon. He gets down to basics for folks, things like what tools you'll need and how to take care of them, what veggies are easier to grow than others and what is needed to take care of these different needs, etc.

Another book, _Gaia's Garden_ is a highly recommended book --it's on small-scale permaculture, but I only just got it myself, so I can't give a review myself.

***
I was going to post a little thing here to you on growing tomatoes, but the description was getting too long. Basically, whatever you do with the garden, remember to take breaks so you don't break your back. If there's a lot to be done, order your tasks in such a way that you can alternate between bending over and standing upright. (I'm a massage therapist and Tai Chi practitioner/teacher too).

Good luck!

Heather G
My blog

Anonymous said...

Sharon said: "That is, it is hard to claim that someone farming a comparatively small piece of land is not a farmer, if they constitute a majority -- in fact, perhaps it would be more accurate to call many large scale farmers (as some prefer) 'agribusinessmen' and leave the term farmer to the majority."

Excellent!

DOWN WITH AGRIBUSINESSMEN! And, VIVA THE FARMERS!

Agribusinessmen brought to our world chemical pesticides and herbicides, genetically modified seeds and foods. In other words, they are responsible for the existence of industrial farming of foods and animals so destructive to every living being on Earth. Moreover, agribusiness is working very hard to destroy small farmers worldwide, first with the so-called "Green Revolution" and now via the control, distribution and advancement of genetically modified seeds.

~Vegan

Apple Jack Creek said...

Thank you for the book recommendations, Helwen!

I am using Square Foot Gardening as my starting point this year - I have done gardening (and presesrving - canning, dehydrating, freezing) before, not on quite this large of a scale, and not in quite as determinedly intensive a format. I'm really looking forward to how it turns out, and having chickens to add into the mix as 'strategic weed eaters' will no doubt ease my back pains. ;)

We have an "umbrella fund": money we set aside every month to help us be more prepared. This goes towards books or 'self-reliance infrastructure' (like our water filter) ... I will add these books to the list of umbrella fund candidates! Thanks!

(repeating to herself "I'm gonna be a real farmer .. I'm gonna be a real farmer ...)

Anonymous said...

Sharon, you made a fool of yourself.
Your childish and glaringly literary accusation that Saniford was guilty of "overt linear thinking" gave you away completely.

spelled with a K said...

Excellent points!

I have in the past described myself as a "city farmer" to which my wife playfully objects that most people who call themselves farmers actually end up with edible produce* My response is of course "I didn't say I was a good farmer, I just said I was a farmer."

I currently have just a touch over 150 square feet of beds, but I tend to shun the label gardener and its implied hobby orientation. I would sooner associate myself as being a person whose passion is the cultivation of producing food from soil and seed (which I unfortuately spend less than 15% of my time) than what I do for a living. I chose my career in IT because I had a knack for it, and the strength of the job market at the time meant a strong source of income where I could provide for a family and have the opportunity to persue the things I really enjoy.

Its a double edged sword, in a way I envy people like my wife who are passionate about what they do as a career. Five seconds after meeting her you can tell she is a teacher, its stunning how well her natural instinct has been finely honed and gainfully employed. On the other hand I can't help but feel that if I had to do what I loved for a paycheck, that I might stop loving it. "Farming" for me is the first step in an equilatteral triangle of my favorite things. Growing food, Cooking Food, Eating Food. I'd rather make it than buy it, cook in than eat out, and fix it than replace it. So I guess for me its not just the act but the mindset as well.

Who defines a farmer? the farmer.

If we must use labels then let the persons being labeled define themselves.



*damnable cucumber beetles

Micheal said...

For me the definition of farming framed in the context of the coming apocalypse is simple - if the act is the production of food by the few for the many, then it’s farming. But in that same context the definition is a distraction, video games - I call ‘em - something to happily occupy the mind when there’s nothing better to do.

Seven Trees said...

Our mission at Seven Trees is to find out just how much 2 people with full time jobs can grow on 1.3 acres of decent land. We have the tiny original farmhouse of the homestead, and are slowly putting it to work feeding us. We also feed our land with manure from our Dexter cow who we'll be milking after she calves in March. We went from 4 raised garden beds 3 years ago, to 3000sq ft of garden now. The 2/3 acre in grass is cross-fenced to maximize grazing and minimize hay purchasing for our cow. We've planted fruit trees to augment the apples and berries we inherited. We're planting a hedgerow to feed and shelter the wild critters (we're near woods and a river). Our laying flock feeds us and keeps the bigs down and helps till the garden. We even have spare eggs to sell at work and are raising extra hens to sell to our converts to backyard chicken keeping. Next spring we bring bees into the equation.

A lot of trial and error has gone with all the book larnin' we've done, and we learn more each season. We're hoping to figure out a core skill/plant/critter set that we can teach other people to put in place in whatever space they have. Instead of Johnny Appleseed, we want to be Johhny Farmerseed. Even a couple laying hens and a raised bed will make a difference.

When people ask me what religion I am, I answer "Farmer"!

Darwin said...

As good a place as any to jump in Sharon, and say "thanks"-found you about a month ago, and love your literate as well as 'radical' voice. Haven't had a chance to review backlog of old posts-regarding re-localization: I'm looking to join like-minded souls in such an effort. As a chiropractor, I can anticipate my skills being much in demand in much more physically demanding post-collapse world. If you, or any of fellow-readers have suggestions re communities seeking members, let me know.
Another farming classic read years ago, probably still useful: "The Soil and Health" by Sir Albert Howard.

Blanche said...

You write very well.

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ming said...

The Street continues to see Iraqi civlians as the wrong kind for not hating the U.S. occupation enough. The Street continues to see Israeli civilians as wrong for being born in the wrong place.
--------------------------------------
The Street excuses Hamas and al-Qaeda when they murder. They actually think it's the civilians' fault for working at the World Trade Center, for going to school in Baghdad, for riding a bus in Israel, for being a kid in Beit Lahiya. See the nobility in the fighters? I know. Neither do I.

ming said...

chanting is not ideal. the strict discipline is not ideal. hell, i'd rather send my kids to a waldorf school where they
--------------------------------------
are fingerpainting by day and translating shakespeare into spanish by night. or whatever.

it's not just about saying: X is good. It's: X is good considering blah blah blah.

that's the full story, the full description, no?

ming said...

The frustrated Arab Street is angry that their voices are ignored. I agree they have much to protest
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about when it comes to their nasty regimes. People have every right to be angry about Abu Ghraib, etc. But perhaps if the Street objected to the killings of all civilians, more people would listen.

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