Sunday, April 15, 2007

Reverie Alone Won't Do: Preparing for a World Without Honeybees

To make a prairie it takes a clover and one bee,
One clover, and a bee,
And revery.
The revery alone will do
If bees are few.
-Emily Dickinson

I want to preface this by pointing out that I'm not a beekeeper (although this was supposed to be my first year - but I think I'll wait until we know a little more about the future of honeybees), or an expert on Colony Collapse Disorder. On the other hand, it seems pretty clear that something really awful is happening to honeybees. If you haven't been watching the news about Colony Collapse Disorder, here are some links (and thanks to Roel again for providing them):
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9213661
http://www.nj.com/printer/printer.ssf?/base/news-11/1176611470205100.xml&coll=1
http://news.independent.co.uk/environment/wildlife/article2449968.ece
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/04/01/nbees01.xml

I'll also say that I don't intend this to be scaremongering - none of us know what effect this might have on our lives. The end of the honeybee has been predicted before, and it didn't happen then. But speaking pragmatically, I think it is generally better to know and prepare for the worst outcomes, and then be pleasantly surprised when they do not happen. I've not seen an essay yet anywhere that talks about how our local food systems might have to respond to CCD, so I've written one.

Now this may turn out to be something rapidly remedied. Or it may not be. In all likelihood, the honeybee will not go wholly extinct (and let us all pray that's true). But CCD has led to a loss of almost 1/3 of all hives in the US, and is now spreading across Europe. And if the worst case were to come true, we would all of us need to rapidly adapt to a significant change in our society and its food security. G-d willing, the much quoted line from Albert Einstein, that if the honeybee went extinct human beings would be extinct in four years is an exaggeration. So we pray. But as we all know, G-d and good fortune help those who help themselves. Even if we cannot prevent the decline of the honeybee, there are some ways to ensure that local food systems survive and continue - we hope. This post is concerned primarily with ways that we can each respond locally to CCD, and ensure stable food sytems.

First of all, it is important to know which crops are dependent on bee pollination. About 1/3 of all food crops, including a vast majority of fruits and nuts, most oilseeds, coconuts, honey (duh) and other foods are dependent upon honeybees. In addition to that first 1/3, another 1/3 of what we eat is indirectly affected by bee pollination - either because bees give better yields, as in the case of some partially self-pollinating fruiting plants, soybeans, sesame, cowpeas, mustard and cashews. Or they are dependent on bee pollination because our food is indirectly dependent on them. For example, the milk you drink, or the beef you eat are a product of pasture and hay plants like clovers and alfalfa. In Australia, just less than 1/2 of the total economic product of agriculture is subsidized for free by honeybees. Here, because we eat so much meat and milk, it is very slightly more. The good news is that almost all grain crops are self or wind pollinating, and thus don't depend on beans. Buckwheat is an exception, but since most people depend on wheat, corn and rice, rather than buckwheat, that's a good thing.

The bad news that the majority of our vitamin C, fat and protein crops depend, at least partially, on honey bee pollination, as do many of our fiber crops - wool (indirectly), along with cotton and flax. Fully one half of all the fats in the world come from oil plants at least partially benefitted by honeybee pollination, and in some cases entirely dependent on it. These crops include sunflowers, coconuts, palms, olives, peanuts, rape and sunflowers. And a majority of our protein crops depend either directly on pollination to some degree, or come from animals that eat pollinator-dependent crops. These include beans, soybeans, peas, peanuts, nuts and many hay crops. Virtually all fruits are bee dependent, and the few exceptions tend not to be less common in our diets, such as paw paws, which depend on wasps.

There are other crops, not so major, whose loss we would notice as well, and other consequences that aren't as obvious up front. Many flowers, and many medicinal herbs are bee dependent. Most legumes, used to build soil quality because they extract nitrogen from the air are to some degree bee dependent. Our ability to garden organically in a world of depleting fossil fuels depends on pollinators. The plants honeybees pollinate provide food and habitat for thousands of other species of insects, birds and animals. We can expect to see other extinctions follow if we lose the honeybee. And most of all, cross pollination and hybridity often increase the vigor of natural species. All of species diversity is threatened by the loss of honeybees.

Honeybees are not native to the Americas, and so most crops that were here before the pilgrims brought bees to the continent can be pollinated with native species. The difficulty with this is that many native species are in decline right now - some seriously endangered. So while squash and blueberries have potential native pollinators, our practices have reduced their numbers so that it may be very difficult at best to achieve decent pollination. One of the best things you can do to attract and protect native pollinators is to plant native gardens, with combinations of native plants. These are the ones that our pollinators evolved to attend to. You want regionally specific and appropriate plants - if you live in the Dakotas, your plant choices will be different than if you live in Florida.

What else can we do? As noted we can bring other pollinators to our gardens. Orchard Mason bees are one such option, but there are many others. You can order pollinating insects and get instructions for making homes for them here: www.homeorchardsociety.com. They are sold out for this year, and it is too late to ship them, but consider ordering early for next year. They also have some excellent information about pollination, pollinators and fruit crops.

You can also make your garden as hospitable as possible to alternate pollinators, both native and non-native - there are thousands of other species of bug and bird that do at least some pollinating. Here are some suggestions for plants to grow and ways to make your garden species diverse: http://nature.berkeley.edu/urbanbeegardens/ Some studies suggest that bumblebees may pollinate many of the same crops that honeybees do. The problem is that population densities of bumblebees are often much lower than honeybees.

One of the most important things you can do is discourage the use of pesticides in your neighborhood - we need all the pollinators we can get. You might consider putting together a fact sheet about CCD, pollination and food systems and passing it out to neighbors, to discourage them from spraying. I have no idea whether the rather sketchy connection between cell phones and bees has anything to it or not, but just on principle, you might consider cutting back on using yours, and discouraging your community from putting up more towers. Couldn't hurt.

Another important role - support research into CCD, limiting GMOs and your local beekeepers. The latter are suffering the most - encourage your state to offer subsidies. And remember, every bee we preserve is a hedge against hard times. It is not clear yet whether GMOs have anything to do with CCD, but whether or not it does, the precautionary principle alone would mark a compelling argument in favor of not putting our food supply at risk because of unproven technologies whose long term effects we do not know.

Ok, on to making sure you get some food even if the bees are not pollinating. One of the most basic things you can do is to rely primarily on species that *don't* require bee pollination. For staple foods, this would involve grains, potatoes and sweet potatoes - corn is wind pollinated, and while bees do visit potato blossoms, potatos are vegetatively propagated. I will be adding more of both crops to my gardens this year. If the worst were to happen, and we were to experience a major shortage of protein and fat crops, we will have to have more staple grain crops to compensate. I would also overplant leguminous crops - these are only partly dependent on pollination, so if you plant a lot of soybeans or peas or peanuts, you will get some harvest. These are important crops for us. It goes without saying that in hard times, such grains should go to feed people primarily, rather than animals.

On the subject of animals, it might make sense to consider raising animals that have evolved to handle flexible diets and lower inputs, even if the short term yields are lower. That is, it might make more sense to raise raise older breeds of chicken, for example, like the Dominique, which forage well and can adapt to and still lay even without high protein, soy-based feeds. If fats and proteins are in short supply, eggs will be extremely valuable. Icelandic and Soay sheep, and Dexter Cattle are among the other breeds that one might consider. Geese are an excellent resource - they live almost entirely on grasses, and produce high quality fats. This might be very important in difficult times. I don't claim to be an expert on any livestock, and I myself only have poultry (chickens, geese, ducks, we're adding turkeys this year). I would welcome more expert advice. One thing I would say is that if we have to rely on non-leguminous grasses and grass hay alone, we will probably be producing far fewer animals, and many of them may have lower body weights. Keeping animals through the winter will also be more difficult (not impossible - Europeans wintered animals on root crops for centuries). But planning for a lower meat diet would only be prudent.

Fruits are a harder nut to crack, so to speak. If you have a small enough number of trees or vines, you can hand pollinate - this is fairly easily done with a small paintbrush. But there are limits to how much hand pollination anyone can do. You might also want to invest in fruiting plants that don't require outside pollination. These plants will be labelled "self-pollinating" in your catalog. Among the fruits that are at least partially self-fertile (that is, they'll produce some fruit without insect pollination) are lingonberries, Blue Elder variety of elderberry, some raspberries and blackberries, red and white currants (but not black), highbush cranberry, serviceberries, Queen Cox Apple (the only self-fruitful one I've seen), Moonglow Pears, some peaches and peach/plum crosses, Stanley and Sprite Plums, Some sweet cherries and all tart cherries, Puget Gold Apricots, Quinces, Medlars, Paw Paws, Mulberries and Pomegranites. Almost none of these will pollinate nearly as well without bees, but they may get you a crop. It is also worth noting that you can get vitamin C from a variety of other sources that don't depend on insect pollination.

As far as I know, there are no nuts that aren't dependent on bees, and other major bee dependent crops include cucumbers, melons, and all squashes, as well as beans and legumes. Tomatoes, peppers and eggplant produce much better with bees. Adapting to the absence of honeybees will probably involve a combination of hand pollination, changing our diets to live with far fewer of these crops, and finding alternate pollinators. I'm still figuring this one out myself. I strongly recommend that any and all of my readers begin working on adapting their diets, their garden practices and their planning to this - add self-fruitful fruiting plants, and grow flowers to attract beneficial insects. Change your recipes around to reduce your dependence on bee-pollinated foods. Experiment with hand pollination and seed saving. Start adapting your animals to different diets, and thinking in terms of how you will respond if the very worst case scenario occurred. Because if it did, we'd need all hands on deck, make sure that Albert Einstein was wrong.

Sharon

95 comments:

Anonymous said...

Read last week that an Aussie bee-keeper had received a large order of bees to be sent to California to help with pollination of almonds.

I've not noticed any decline in bees here (Melbourne, Australia), in fact our Sedum Autumn Joy is crawling with them right now.

Emeeathome

M Squirrel said...

German Scientists believe they have discovered a link between the demise of the bee and Genetically Modified Crops. Since there is dozens of articles on it, I decided to just pass on the Yahoo search link. http://search.yahoo.com/search?p=German+Scientists+Bees+GM+crops&fr=yfp-t-501&toggle=1&cop=mss&ei=UTF-8

Sara said...

Some news from our locality that there's been a bit of a rebound, which seems positive: http://www.registerguard.com/news/2007/04/11/a1.bees.0411.p1.php.

Squrrl said...

My husband and I keep bees. We had four hives last fall, two of which we lost this winter--by our best guess, one to ordinary starvation (well, ordinary in so far as the extremely mild winter that caused it can be considered ordinary) and the other, most likely, to colony collapse. The remaining hives appear to be well and strong. I do think it's important to note that the US beekeeping industry has actually suffered several large-scale winter dieouts over the last couple of decades--First, tracheal mites hit very hard, and later varroa mites and a variety of exotic diseases. Domestic bees are, at this point, hardly bothered by tracheal mites, due mostly to a hard-won bout of fast evolution, as far as we can tell. The industry continues to reel, but so far, the bees keep coming back. Personally, we believe, and our beekeeping association agrees, that the best defense against the destruction of the honey bee is to get bees into the hands of as many hobbyists as possible, who will hopefully both diversify and spread out the genetic base of the bees and provide the innovations needed to recover from the latest assault.

Essentially, your post was insightful and thorough, and possibly needful, but don't give up on the bees yet.

Anonymous said...

I used to keep bees- still have all the equipment but I stopped back when Varroa mites wiped my hives out- it's very expensive to keep buying new bees every year.

I find it a very scary notion that either GMO's or cell phone radiation would be responsible for the latest bee troubles- but not improbable either at all. I neither use a cell phone or grow GMO crops(try to avoid eating them as well)-banning them both would be just fine with me;I've never trusted either.

I wonder what would happen if one or both were found to be causing this; could you imagine for instance our corporate entities agreeing to end cell phone usage or stop selling GMO crops? Right- like Exxon agreeing to stop drilling for oil....

ANI

jewishfarmer said...

Squrrl, I'm not counting bees out yet at all, but I do think that if (G-d forbid) it happens, and we wait to prepare until the bees disappear, we're in big trouble. None of these strategies prevents you from also keeping bees and encouraging them.

I agree we need to get more hives in more people's hands - I simply can't afford the investment and the danger of loss right now, or I'd love to.

Sharon

anna in canada said...

Hmmm. One of the things I take really seriously about being relatively financially stable is the responsibility to use that money--which I think of as an "energy storage system"--to do things for the planet.

So, with the cursory knowledge I now have through the research on chickens (which told me that in fact although I may not be allowed to keep "poultry"--though possibly "household animal chickens") I know that in my municipality you can keep up to three hives of bees on less than an acre. I'm not sure I can do this, because it may mean building the fences to six feet (I'll need to look into this to see!), but I'm just curious--what kind of financial outlay am I looking at, if I choose to keep bees?

Also--mason bees (which I've started) are great orchard pollinators, but they only fly during the orchard bloom season. They're not so useful for garden crops--which is why you're so right, Sharon, about the need for honeybees!

For readers of this blog in the Pacific Northwest (especially the North part of that--up in Canada), the best book I've found on "Naturscaping" (to attract local pollinators) is April Pettinger and Brenda Costanzo's _Native Plants in the Coastal Garden_. Bill Merilees has also written a book (it's downstairs, and I'm lazy, but I think it's just called "Gardening for Wildlife") that's a bit less native-plant-focussed, but very useful indeed.

Also useful is British Columbia's very own "bug lady," souce of all things insecty: http://www.thebuglady.ca/

As for Vitamin C--let's not forget that fruits are by no means the only sources! In fact, green peppers are easily hand-pollinated, and have more C than oranges. Plus, there are all the greens and various roots and so on. I'm also a huge fan of perennial vegetables. Asparagus, sea kale, perennial broccoli, sorrel, argugula, burnet, parsley and so on--let's all take a page from the books of the late great Douglas Adams, to add to Einstein's hypothesis: Don't Panic!

Just work really hard and be really careful and take it all very seriously. And have fun. I never read a better set of words than those from Howard Thurman: "Ask not what the world needs. Ask what makes you come alive . . . then go do it. Because what the world needs is more people who have come alive."

riverbird said...

thanks for a great post, very informative. on aside, i have chickens and have been considering adding ducks, i wonder how they mix?? thanks again.

Anonymous said...

What's with the "G-d willing?" It's spelled God and implies a believe in the supernatura diety that is alleged to have created the world and everything in it.

Of course, you'd have to be nuts to believe that. The honey bee collapse isn't the will of God or not the will of God, God doens't factor into this equation at all. It's because of the magnetic fields affecting the bee's orientation (go look it up). These fields also aren't the will of God. This is all human-caused and human-induced effects. Blaming God or not blaming G-d is ridiculous.

Anonymous said...

chickens and ducks mix just fine

ANI

anna in canada said...

hmm. Well, anonymous, I won't pretend to know what Sharon thinks or what she does or what she believes--although it is my understanding that in your country she has the right to do all three in more or less any way she likes as long as she doesn't hurt others.

However, even a cursory reading of her writing will tell you that blaming a supernatural deity isn't part of any faith system that comes through here. In fact, she seems pretty clear on the role of humanity.

And as for spelling (really, does it matter enough to get upset over??)--if I'm not mistaken, it is not permitted, in the Jewish faith, to write out the name of the primary deity in full, since that deity is far beyond human attempts at representation--linguistic or otherwise. The tradition, even in the most ancient writings, is to replace the symbols for vowel sounds with other symbols (typically, as I understand it, vowel sounds from another word: "adonai" or "lord"). Now, replacing the vowel sound in "G-d" with the one in "lord" doesn't make much sense, does it? I think the hyphen does the trick admirably.

I absolutely support Sharon's right to render any words she likes in any form she likes, and to believe whatever she likes (as long as she agrees with me). Just kidding! :)

Ellen Anderson said...

Mystery Disease? Sounds a lot like poison to me. The real mystery is why we are sitting by like timid dummies while the big corporations spin this one. Cell phones? Really?

I am a beekeeper in Central Massachusetts who read about Colony Collapse in February. Something in one of the reports reminded me of a description of how termites are said to be killed by a new class of pesticides known as neonicitinoids. I went to my local farmers' coop, picked up labels from the various insecticide bottles and Googled the ingredients with 'honeybees,' 'sublethal' and 'organic.' A product called 'Merit' containing the neuro-toxin 'Imidacloprid' came up as a soil treatment for fruit trees. Other products with other cute names were being advertised for use on turf to kill grubs (also earthworms.) The labels promise that all sorts of insects, including adult japanese beetles will be controlled for 12 months (read systemic.) Visit your local Walmart and garden center and you will find it on all the shelves. They sell more of it every year according to the Bayer Corporation. You remember Bayer, right? They gave us aspirin and other less pleasant products in WW I and WW II. More recently, BayerCropScience has given us the gift of genetically modified rice. You may have read about it.

'Merit' 'Gaucho' 'BayerAdvanced' 'Admire,' 'Gaucho,' 'Genesis,' 'Platinum,' 'Provado,' 'Leverage,' 'Actara' are catchy little trade names for Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide that was banned in France after beekeepers staged an angry protest in Paris. Bayer CropScience paid many millions to the french beekeepers and voluntarily withdrew the product without admitting that it was the culprit. Vive La France! They take their food seriously. Shame on us. Shame on the EPA. Shame on the media for not even mentioning the history of the peoples fight against Imidacloprid in France. The more stories I hear about the mystery disease the sillier they get. Soon the media will begin to snicker at all of the alarmists who worry about GMO's and cell towers. They will sigh, continue to wonder and finally forget about it. Already some are beginning to talk about how we can survive without bees as though it were just another problem like surviving without oil.

Imidacloprid is the most likely culprit in CCD, even thought there may be other contributing factors. This is the same class of stuff some of us put on our dogs and cats to kill fleas and ticks (see Fipronil and Frontline.) It is much less toxic to mammals than to invertebrates. ( I confess that the ticks at my place have tempted me to put it on my own neck.) Yesterday, I overheard a salesperson in the coop suggest to a customer that he put some on his chickens. What a wonderful idea. We can have it for breakfast in our locally produced eggs. This morning The Weather Channel carried a Bayer advertisement for Merit calling out to those of us who are "sick and tired of all those bugs." If Imidacloprid were being discussed as a cause for CCD, you can be sure that the Weather Channel would be a little more concerned about those ads. That is why it is hardly ever mentioned by name. Instead, the generic term 'pesticide' is used in news discussions of CCD.

In fairness, defenders of Imidacloprid say is that it is less toxic to humans than the Lindane that it replaces. Also, this is the only chemical known to kill the wooly adelgid that attacks canadian hemlocks. But many home gardeners are aware of Lindane's danger using it carefully if at all. And, even it there is some role for Imidacloprid, there is no excuse for mixing a persistent neurotoxin into our food supply and placing it in the hands of unsuspecting or careless homeowners.

The Merit label I saw carried no warnings about bees even though there is no question that a sufficiently large dose of Immidacloprid is known to kill honeybees. This fact is not in any dispute. The question really is whether there are low, sub-lethal doses that do kill the bees. Bayer says there is no proof of this. They cannot find any traces of the stuff in the dead bees. (Actually, they cannot even find the bees.) Consider, however, the following. The graphic on the Merit label illustrates how the product travels up from the roots into the branches. Bayer claims (and studies confirm) that it is present in blossoms and pollen and that it persists in the soil for at least one year. So the bees do get some of it. If it will kill a really tough Japanese Beetle for 12 months is it really sensible to think that it wouldn't kill a honeybee, known to be sensitive to the drug? Consider also Bayer's own account of how termites are killed by Imidacloprid: the termite's immune system is compromised by the neurotoxin so that it becomes susceptible to the viruses, bacteria and fungi that are normally present and controlled. In other words, their immune systems collapse. If, by chance, the termite is not killed outright, when it flies away from its nest, Bayer's ads say that it will not be able to find its way back. Sound familiar? Sound like colony collapse disorder?

I guess that I am going to try to post this wherever I find people talking about cell phones killing bees. Incidentally, our hives, mainly managed organically and close to protected open space in Massachusetts, were doing just fine in February, March and up until the great rains. Hopefully all is still well. We have a great variety of native bees and dragon flies and we do not place hives in any locations where any pesticides are used. That includes BT. Yes, we have to worry about mites. We are going to have to hope that, as time passes, the honeybees will begin to develop some natural resistance. I hope that the state and federal governments will help support organic beekeepers as we go through this. The best way to start is to tell the big corporations to act like good citizens. They want rights of citizens, they should have the obligations of citizens. So far, it doesn't look good. Again, I say, Vive La France!

roel said...

ellen anderson

Thanks for that elaborate comment, very informative. I haven't ruled out phone masts entirely, but you make a real good case. (it's not the phones themselves, I think, but the million masts that support their radiation.)

A question remains: the timing, as in: why now? and why so massively all of a sudden (US UK, Germany etc)? Imidacloprid has been around for a while?!

And:
"the termite's immune system is compromised by the neurotoxin so that it becomes susceptible to the viruses, bacteria and fungi that are normally present and controlled. In other words, their immune systems collapse. If, by chance, the termite is not killed outright, when it flies away from its nest, Bayer's ads say that it will not be able to find its way back"

It's not "by chance" that the occasional bee doesn't find its way back, almost none of them make it back.

And the susceptibility to mites etc. is certainly a common trait in the vanishing bees stories. A German study pointed to just that: chemicals leading to depressed immune systems.

Still, by all means, never no more no Imidacloprid, or anything like it, or any chemicals in your life and garden.

jewishfarmer said...

Ellen, thank you for the extensive analysis. That's very helpful. I agree with Roel, though, that both your hypothesis and the cell phone one need to answer the larger question - why now?

I know of several organic practice beekeepers who have experienced CCD, although of course there is no certainty that their bees they haven't come in contact with the poison elsewhere. I'm interested in the data that suggests that the honey in the hives is not robbed by other insects after CCD - that to me seems like a potential smoking gun for GMOs, rather than a pesticide or cell phones. But I admit only huge quantities of ignorance.

Anna, thank you for you kind words. Allowing the possibility that some who phrases their comments that way isn't a troll, I will say that you are right - it is a Jewish custom not to write out any of the names of G-d by hand. And no, of course I don't think this is caused by G-d - it will almost certainly be some way we've shot ourselves in the foot. But IMHO, prayer can't hurt - along with everything else you can do. You are, of course, free to do otherwise.

Sharon

anna in canada said...

Wow did I just learn a lot about bees! I'm going to look further into keeping a hive in the yard . . . or at the very least supporting the local apiary as best I can.

I also forgot to mention that I *love* the title of this post.

For the words--You're welcome, and more than welcome, Sharon. I'm of the opinion that the spirit which created us has a will, which extends to our free will, which is required to make the decision to either shoot ourselves in the foot, or to bind up that wound and keep walking. I'm all for keeping walking! And engaging that spirit, and its will--which is one way of defining prayer, I think.

ellenanderson said...

In response to the question "why now?" The use of imidaclopride has been on the rise since 1994 or 1995. It had limited applications at first and started in Europe. There were a number of posts on the New York University Albany's bee biology list serve between 1996 and 2001 predicting that we were about to witness the demise of our honeybees and bumblebees. It is hard to get good information. The USDA has only a handful of bee experts and Bayer is a very powerful corporation.However, it seems to be that there is a constant correlation between the increase in use of imidacloprid and the extent of CCD. It is not new. It has been happening and it has been discussed expensively in Canada and Europe. If I can find it anyone can. I don't know how to make PDF's available on a blog. If I can figure out how to do it, I can put up a lot of information that you would find very convincing and you would not think that this is a mystery.

David Perry said...

Sharon,

Thank you for such a beautifully considered essay, and for all of the informative comments it has inspired. I've linked to your post in my Photographer's Garden Blog in the hopes that others will follow both the links and the logic.

Again, thank you...

David

Mass_Love said...

As for jews sneaking something about jews into every conversation they have, (what the hell does GOD have to do with this conversation anyway?) And what is the cryptic message about god written here for in the first place?

I would be more than happy to surrender my c-ll phone to the authorities and would feel blessed for it. I would be happy if noone every ate anything other than org-nic food ever again, and I will consult the Dalai Lama about all this killing of mites, etc.

Have I told anyone what my ethnic background is? What my religion is?

the point is this: SAVE THE BEES!

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